fax (000) 000-0000
toll-free (000) 000-0000


Military History

Historical sources bolster archaeological evidence, and vice versa, and the historian can cast new light on old facts and bring perspective to primary and secondary source materials. In order to get the most out of a mentally challenging historical exercise, it helps to be aware of the different ways we approach historical sources, their limitations, and the biases that affect us. As we ponder historical material, we must also remember that history is a living entity. Any historical account can potentially bring us something unique. But unlike science, it does not follow precise rules and there is no single correct answer. How we approach history is determined by our respective backgrounds, cultures, goals, desires, and passions. When studying military history at length, we will find that warfare comes in many forms, and comments on another’s work can be complementary rather than contrary and help bring broader generalizations into focus. This is not the same as saying that everybody's approach to interpreting history is equally valid. Serious and critical study certainly carries greater weight than anecdotal stories, and may do more to legitimize one approach over another. The reader carries part of the responsibility for his or her education and must be ready to meet the historian halfway.

See More


Martial Arts

Much argument has surrounded the question of which martial art is best or most powerful. It is certainly possible to measure the power of strikes in a sterile environment; that is, in a noncombat environment with the aid of different instrumentation. When in combat, however, a number of factors that are difficult to measure enter into the equation. These include individual reaction speed, fear, physical limitations (such as flexibility or prior injury), and environmental factors (such as weather, footing, and barriers). Martial arts, or any kind of combat, is not purely science based, as evidenced by the term "art." The "art" part of martial arts also speaks of how we interpret a combat situation and differs between tacticians and strategists. But although it is called "art," it is also not purely art based. There is a definite science involved in throwing powerful and effective strikes and kicks, and in enacting valuable offensive and defensive maneuvers in both standup and ground fighting. Physical combat on any level requires constant adjustments in distance and timing to what the opponent is doing.

See More


Miscellaneous Other

Learning how to think involves skepticism. It requires awareness of biases related to previous experiences, strong personal views, or current ambitions. Readers of leadership and political books would be wise to approach their studies with the same caution a historian approaches his or her sources of information. Start by asking who wrote the book, what is his or her background, and what are the potential biases hidden within the text. What conviction does the author hold and what is he or she trying to achieve?

See More



Iron Age or early Viking Age helmet displayed at the Museum of History in Stockholm, Sweden.